Karl W Koskohttps://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/Recent works by Karl W Koskoen-usCopyright (c) 2018 All rights reserved.Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +00003600Using multi-decision scenarios to facilitate teacher knowledge for mathematical questioninghttps://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/11/A novel method for both examining and improving preservice teachers’ knowledge for facilitating mathematical discussion is presented. The online platform LessonSketch.org was used to create comic-based representations of mathematics teaching that included multiple variations depending on user (preservice teacher) question choice. Each scenario includes three decision points in which question types are available as options for the user, allowing for 39 potential storylines generated from user choice. Preliminary data from preservice teachers is presented, along with an example scenario, to support discussion for implementation in teacher education, with the example provided focusing particularly on elementary mathematics.Karl W KoskoWed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/11/Using multi-decision scenarios to facilitate teacher knowledge for mathematical questioningMathematical DiscussionPerceptions and reality: One teacher’s use of prompts in mathematical discussionshttps://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/10/We examined one primary teacher’s knowledge for facilitating mathematical discussion (MKT-Disc) via approximations of practice and compared her use of certain questioning prompts in these vignettes with her facilitation of discussions in her actual mathematics teaching. Findings showed differences in what the teacher reported she knows and what she actually did in practice. Evidence suggests the teacher’s institutional obligations to a mandated curriculum, as well as the nature of her MKT-Disc, were the primary reasons for the mismatch between approximations and actual practice.Karl W Kosko et al.Wed, 01 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/10/Mathematical DiscussionStudents’ quality of mathematical discussion and their self-determination in mathematics.https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/2/Mathematical discussion allows for students to reflect upon math concepts and understand such concepts at a deeper level. This process of reflection requires a certain amount of internalization on the part of the student. This internalization is facilitated by meeting the needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness as advocated by Self-Determination Theory. The current study provides evidence of a relationship between fulfillment of these psychological needs and the quality of mathematical discussion students report they engage in. Correlational analyses and structural equation modeling of data from 176 high school Geometry students were conducted to examine this relationship. Results support the claims of a connection between fulfillment of students’ autonomy, competence, and relatedness and their reported engagement in mathematical discussion.Karl W Kosko et al.Sun, 01 Jan 2012 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/2/AssessmentSelf-Determination TheoryA deeper look at how teachers say what they say: A quantitative modality analysis of teacher-to-teacher talk.https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/3/Analysis of teacher-to-teacher talk provides researchers with useful information regarding the teaching profession and teachers’ perspectives. This article provides a description of a method, with accompanying example, examining teacher-to-teacher talk by incorporating semantic modality and examining trends of its usage in a quantitative manner. Analysis of the example presented showed a tendency for teachers to use normative and probability modality, signaling a prevalence of assertions concerned with normative ways of teaching. The example analysis provides a replicable framework for other researchers to apply and adapt the analysis method described. Specifications and discussion of this method are provided in detail.Karl W Kosko et al.Sun, 01 Jan 2012 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/3/Self-Determination TheoryStudent enrollment in classes with frequent mathematical discussion and its longitudinal effect on mathematics achievement.https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/5/Mathematical discussion has been identified as being beneficial to students’ understandings of mathematics (Goos, 1995; Lee, 2006). Students in classrooms with more effective math discussion have been observed to engage more frequently in discussion (e.g. Hiebert & Wearne, 1993), but the converse is not necessarily true (e.g. Manouchehri & St. John, 2006). Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the present study examined student enrollment in classes with more and less frequent discussion and such enrollment’s effect on mathematics achievement over time. Results indicated that students enrolled in classes that discuss math “almost every day” consistently have higher math achievement than students enrolled in classes that discuss math “never or hardly ever.” These results and their implications are discussed in depth.Karl W KoskoSun, 01 Jan 2012 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/5/Mathematical DiscussionLetter writing: Providing preservice teachers with experience in posing appropriate mathematical tasks to high school studentshttps://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/9/Karl W Kosko et al.Fri, 01 Jan 2010 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/9/No Subject AreaMathematical communication and its relation to the frequency of manipulative use.https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/6/Many studies on manipulatives describe communication in mathematics as a component for properly implementing manipulatives in the classroom. However, no empirical research is available to support this relationship. Secondary analysis of data collected by the National Center for Educational Statistics from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study was used to examine whether a relationship between students’ manipulative use and communication in mathematics learning exists. Correlational analyses found a significant relationship between students’ verbal and written communication and manipulative use.Karl W Kosko et al.Fri, 01 Jan 2010 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/6/Mathematical DiscussionWriting sophistication in students answers to algebraic questions.https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/8/Various research has identified mathematical writing as promoting metacognition of students. This metacognition can come in the form of generalizations which in theory should support abstraction in algebraic reasoning. The current study sought to link the level of mathematical writing sophistication to displayed algebraic reasoning. Analysis of 6th, 7th, and 8th grade data showed that students who provided algebraic as opposed to arithmetic reasoning wrote about mathematics in a more detailed manner.Karl W Kosko et al.Thu, 01 Jan 2009 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/8/Mathematical Writing, AlgebraGeneral educators’ inservice training and their self- perceived ability to adapt instruction for special needs students.https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/7/Recent research has suggested that the professional development general educators receive is not adequately preparing them to properly implement inclusion-based practices. In this study, data from the Study of Personnel Needs in Special Education was used to investigate the relationship among teachers’ years of experience teaching students with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), the amount of professional development received over the past 3 years, and teachers’ self-perceived ability to adapt instruction for students with IEPs. Results indicate that any amount of professional development in a 3-year period significantly predicts teachers’ perceived ability to adapt instruction; however, at least 8 hours of professional development in a 3-year time frame was related to an increase in teachers’ perceived ability to adapt instruction, more than twice the effect of less than 8 hours. Additionally, professional development was found to be a better predictor for increasing perceived ability to adapt instruction than was teacher experience with instructing students who have IEPs.Karl W Kosko et al.Thu, 01 Jan 2009 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/7/No Subject AreaCommunicating Quantitative Literacy: An Examination of Open-Ended Assessment Items in TIMSS, NALS, IALS, and PISAhttps://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/1/Quantitative Literacy (QL) has been described as the skill set an individual uses when interacting with the world in a quantitative manner. A necessary component of this interaction is communication. To this end, assessments of QL have included open-ended items as a means of including communicative aspects of QL. The present study sought to examine whether such open-ended items typically measured aspects of quantitative communication, as compared to mathematical communication, or mathematical skills. We focused on public-released items and rubrics from four of the most widely referenced assessments: the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS-95): the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS; now the National Assessment of Adult Literacy, NAAL) in 1985 and 1992, the International Adult Literacy Skills (IALS) beginning in 1994; and the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) beginning in 2000. We found that open-ended item rubrics in these QL assessments showed a strong tendency to assess answer-only responses. Therefore, while some open-ended items may have required certain levels of quantitative reasoning to find a solution, it is the solution rather than the reasoning that was often assessed.https://works.bepress.com/kwkosko/1/Assessment