Edoh Y. Amiranhttps://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/Recent works by Edoh Y. Amiranen-usCopyright (c) 2019 All rights reserved.Sun, 01 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +00003600What do income tests tell us about the gap between WTA and WTP for public goodshttps://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/12/<div class="line" id="line-13"><span style="color: rgb(80, 80, 80); font-family: Arial, Helvetica, "Lucida Sans Unicode", "Microsoft Sans Serif", "Segoe UI Symbol", STIXGeneral, "Cambria Math", "Arial Unicode MS", sans-serif; font-size: 16px;">Theory relates the gap between WTA (willingness to accept compensation) and WTP (willingness to pay) to the income </span><a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/economics-econometrics-and-finance/elasticity"><span style="color: rgb(0, 115, 152); font-family: Arial, Helvetica, "Lucida Sans Unicode", "Microsoft Sans Serif", "Segoe UI Symbol", STIXGeneral, "Cambria Math", "Arial Unicode MS", sans-serif; font-size: 16px;">elasticity</span></a><span style="color: rgb(80, 80, 80); font-family: Arial, Helvetica, "Lucida Sans Unicode", "Microsoft Sans Serif", "Segoe UI Symbol", STIXGeneral, "Cambria Math", "Arial Unicode MS", sans-serif; font-size: 16px;"> of WTP. It has been suggested that empirical estimates of the income elasticity of WTP can therefore be used to test whether an observed gap between WTA and WTP is consistent with rational behavior. We examine this issue for the case of non-market public goods. We identify the theoretically appropriate tests of income sensitivity, and examine conditions for valid income sensitivity tests. We show that income tests may provide false signals in common settings, indicating an inconsistency where none exists.</span></div>Edoh Y. Amiran et al.Sun, 01 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/12/ArticlesDirectionally Bounded Utility and the Executive Pay Puzzlehttps://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/11/<p>The pay of CEOs and other top executives has risen disproportionately relative to other earnings. We provide a supply-side explanation based on utility theory using directionally bounded utility functions. As overall income levels have grown, the amount of compensation required to induce top executives to sacrifice a quiet life has risen. We show that directionally bounded utility functions predict a general rise in compensation for stress. More importantly, such utility functions can be used to explain why the CEO pay ratio has risen at an increasing rate, something which other approaches have difficulty explaining.</p>
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 07:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/11/ArticlesViking 45 Electric HybridDesign, Construction and Analysis: A Quest for the $10 million Progressive Automotive X Prizehttps://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/5/<div class="line" id="line-29"><span style="color: rgb(88, 89, 91); background-color: rgb(239, 239, 239); font-family: LatoWeb, LatoWeb, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;">Faculty and undergraduate students at the Vehicle Research Institute developed the parallel electric hybrid Viking 45 to compete in the Progressive Automotive X Prize. The contest challenged auto manufacturers to build vehicles that could achieve a gasoline equivalent fuel efficiency of 2.35 liter per 100 km while meeting a subset of U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. The contest offered a $10 million purse to encourage participation.Viking 45 features a 50 kW, three cylinder gasoline engine coupled with a 23 kW electric motor. A 9.6 kWh lithium polymer battery pack allows the vehicle to travel more than 100 km at 100 km/hr. Carbon fiber composite vacuum assisted resin transfer techniques were developed to demonstrate the potential for low volume (10,000 units/year) production. The monocoque chassis demonstrated carbon fiber honeycomb for impact attenuation structures to manage front and side impacts. These materials enabled the test weight of the vehicle, with driver to be 789 kg. The vehicle achieved a top ten finish out of 136 vehicles entered.</span></div>Eric C. Leonhardt et al.Sun, 08 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/5/PresentationsThe Scope Trials: Variation in sensitivity to scope and WTP with directionally bounded utility functionshttps://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/4/<div class="line" id="line-21"><span style="color: rgb(80, 80, 80); font-family: Arial, Helvetica, "Lucida Sans Unicode", "Microsoft Sans Serif", "Segoe UI Symbol", STIXGeneral, "Cambria Math", "Arial Unicode MS", sans-serif; font-size: medium;">Sensitivity to scope refers to the property that willingness to pay for an environmental amenity is an increasing function of the scope of the amenity. Measurements of the degree of sensitivity to scope are commonly proposed as a test for the reliability of contingent valuation studies. We evaluate the traditional scope test using neoclassical utility functions that are directionally bounded. We provide a formal definition of sensitivity to scope, and show that directionally bounded utility functions can produce arbitrarily small degrees of sensitivity to scope. We conclude that a failure to satisfy existing scope tests should not be used as a </span><i style="color: rgb(80, 80, 80); font-family: Arial, Helvetica, "Lucida Sans Unicode", "Microsoft Sans Serif", "Segoe UI Symbol", STIXGeneral, "Cambria Math", "Arial Unicode MS", sans-serif; font-size: medium;">prima facie</i><span style="color: rgb(80, 80, 80); font-family: Arial, Helvetica, "Lucida Sans Unicode", "Microsoft Sans Serif", "Segoe UI Symbol", STIXGeneral, "Cambria Math", "Arial Unicode MS", sans-serif; font-size: medium;"> basis for rejecting contingent valuation studies. This does not imply that small degrees of sensitivity to scope should always be viewed as acceptable. Rather, the results of scope tests should be considered more carefully, with attention given to the substitutability of market and non-market goods.</span></div>Edoh Y. Amiran et al.Sat, 01 May 2010 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/4/ArticlesFitting Invariant Curves on Billiard Tables and the Birkhoff-Herman Theoremhttps://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/7/<div class="line" id="line-21"><span style="color: black; font-family: Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">A two-dimensional billiard table is geometrically integrable when the phase space is foliated by continuous invariant curves. When an integrable planar domain has a C⁴ boundary with strictly positive curvature, a neighborhood of the boundary is foliated by invariant circles. This family of invariant circles can lose convexity only after developing a singularity and if it developes a singularity, the boundary contains a segment of an ellipse. An important role in this result is played by the Birkhoff-Herman thoerem which shows that differentiability of enveloped curves cannot be lost without a change in homotopy type.</span></div>Edoh Y. AmiranThu, 01 Jan 2004 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/7/ArticlesWillingness To Pay and Willingness To Accept: How Much Can They Differ? Commenthttps://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/3/Edoh Y. Amiran et al.Thu, 02 Jan 2003 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/3/ArticlesIntegrable Smooth Planar Billiards and Evoluteshttps://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/10/<p>Any elliptic region is an example of an integrable domain: the set of tangents to a confocal ellipse or hyperbola remains invariant under reflection across the normal to the boundary. The main result states that when Ω is a strictly convex bounded planar domain with a smooth boundary and is integrable near the boundary, its boundary is necessarily an ellipse. The proof is based on the fact that ellipses satisfy a certain “transitivity property”, and that this characterizes ellipses among smooth strictly convex closed planar curves. To establish the transitivity property, KAM theory is used with a perturbation of the integrable billiard map.</p>
Wed, 01 Jan 1997 08:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/10/ArticlesNoncoincidence of geodesic lengths and hearing elliptic quantum billiardshttps://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/8/<div class="line" id="line-13">Assume that the planar region <i>Ω</i> has a <i>C</i>¹ boundary <i>∂Ω</i> and is strictly convex in the sense that the tangent angle determines a point on the boundary. The lengths of invariant circles for the billiard ball map (or caustics) accumulate on │<i>∂Ω</i>│. It follows from direct calculations and from relations between the lengths of invariant circles and the lengths of trajectories of the billiard ball map that under mild assumptions on the lengths of some geodesics the region satisfies the strong noncoincidence condition. This condition plays a role in recovering the lengths of closed geodesics from the spectrum of the Laplacian. Asymptotics for the lengths of invariant circles and an application to ellipses are discussed. In addition; some examples regarding strong non coincidence are given.</div>Edoh Y. AmiranThu, 11 Jan 1996 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/8/ArticlesLazutkin Coordinates and Invariant Curves for Outer Billiardshttps://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/1/The outer billiard ball map (OBM) is defined from and to the exterior of a domain, Ω, in the plane as taking a point, q, to another point, q 1, when the line segment with endpoints q and q 1 is tangent to the boundary, ∂Ω (with a chosen orientation), and the point of tangency with the boundary divides the segment in half. Let C be an invariant circle for the OBM on Ω, with ∂Ω smooth with positive curvature. After computing the loss of derivatives between ∂Ω and C, it is shown via KAM theory that in this setting the OBM has uncountably many invariant circles in any neighborhood of the boundary. One is also led to an infinitesimal obstruction for the evolution property, an obstruction which, among closed smooth convex curves, is only removed for ellipses.Edoh Y. AmiranWed, 01 Mar 1995 08:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/1/ArticlesA Dynamical Approach to Symplectic and Spectral Invariants for Billiardshttps://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/9/<div class="line" id="line-13"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); background-color: rgb(252, 252, 252); font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 17px;">The Lazutkin parameter for curves which are invariant under the billiard ball map is viewed symplectically in a way which makes it analogous to the sum of the values of a generating function over a closed orbit. This leads to relations among lengths of closed geodesics, lengths of invariant curves for the billiard map, rotation numbers, and the Lazutkin parameter. These relations establish the Birkhoff invariant and the expansion for the lengths of invariant curves in terms of the Lazutkin parameter as symplectic and spectral invariants (for the Dirichlet spectrum) and provide invariants which characterize a family of ellipses among smooth curves with positive curvature. Geodesic flow on a bounded planar region gives rise to several geometric objects among which are closed reflected geodesics and invariant curves-closed curves whose tangents are invariant under reflection at the boundary. On a bounded domain, the map that assigns to each geodesic segment its successor after reflection at the boundary is called the billiard ball map and its dual (in the cotangent bundle for the boundary) is called the boundary map.</span></div>Edoh Y. AmiranSat, 01 May 1993 00:00:00 +0000https://works.bepress.com/edoh_amiran/9/Articles